India’s ancient civilization emerged about 5,000 years ago on the Indus River, known now as Pakistan. Archaeologists exposed the remains of two huge cities with brick houses, piped water, and sewer systems. No one knows why, but these cities, called Harappa and Mohenjo Daro, were abandoned in 1700 B.C.
The Aryan people were farmers from Central Asia who enters in India around 1500 B.C. Their language is Sanskrit, one of the world's ancient known languages. The Vedic Scriptures, writings that form the basis of the Hindu religion, were written during the Aryan reign.
In the 200-year rule of the Gupta Empire, arise in the fourth century A.D., arts, crafts, and sciences prosper. On that time the Indian astronomer Aryabhatta was persistent that the Earth revolved around the sun. This was long before the Western world embraced the theory. Beginning in the 16th century, following a series of occupation of Muslim forces, a Mongol leader named Babur established the Mongol Empire. The Mongols supervised a golden age of art, literature, and architecture in India between 1527 and 1707. They put up roads, mosques, gardens, and vast tombs, including the grand Taj Mahal.
In the late 1400s, Europeans enter in India and began setting up trading companies. In 1757, Britain obtained authority over most of the country. Revolt against British rule began in 1856. In 1920, the famous Mahatma Gandhi began orderly protests to overcome British. In 1947, India had independence.